The 4th assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) laid out the far-reaching consequences of climate change. Together with other reports such as the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, a wide audience became aware of the threats associated with climate change. In response, the debate on climate change and international security increasingly features in policy processes on national and international levels. This section provides an overview on the the current developments of such processes.
» For more information about the German-led climate dialogues including the UN Security Council debate held on 20 July 2011, please see here.
The UN Dimension
The General Assembly of the United Nations (U.N.) at its 63 General Assembly on 3 June 2009 adopted a draft resolution on "Climate change and its possible security implications" (A/63/281), which have been proposed by the Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS). The resolution was adopted by a consensus and 101 states supported it. For the first time in the history of the U.N., the United States co-sponsored a climate protection resolution.
The EU Dimension
In June 2007 the EU Council invited High-Representative Javier Solana and Commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner to jointly assess the potential security implications of climate change from an EU perspective. This resulted in the Joint Paper on “Climate Change and International Security” (CCIS), published in March 2008.
Holland, A. 2011: Transatlantic Dialogue on Climate Change and Security: Final Report. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Busby, Joshua; White, Kaiba and Todd Smith 2010: Mapping Climate Change and Security in North Africa. Washington, DC: German Marshall Fund.
Feakin, Tobias and Duncan Depledge 2010: Climate Security: Impacts and Opportunities for Transatlantic Relations. Washington, DC: German Marshall Fund.
Mabey, Nick 2010: Facing the Climate Security Threat: Why the Security Community Needs a “Whole of Government” Response to Global Climate Change. Washington, DC: German Marshall Fund.
Taenzler, Dennis and Alexander Carius 2010: Climate security: Future landscapes of conflict and cooperation. Washington, DC: German Marshall Fund.
Carius, A./Tänzler, D./Maas A. 2008: Climate Change and Security. Challenges for German Development Cooperation, Eschborn: GTZ.
Mabey, N. 2008: Delivering Climate Security: International Security Responses to a Climate Changed World. Whitehall Papers No.69.
Busby, J. 2007: Climate Change and National Security. An Agenda for Action. CSR No. 32. Washington: Council on Foreign Relations.
CNA 2007: National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Alexandria (Virginia).
German Advisory Council on Global Change 2007: World in Transition. Climate Change as a Security Risk. London and Sterling. (20MB)
International Alert 2007: A climate of conflict. The links between climate change, war and peace. London.
IISD 2007: Climate Change and Foreign Policy. Winnipeg.
For further publications, please see our extended Reading List.